Kambule: on morning ground | Snapshot

Early each Carnival Friday morning, before dawn breaks, crowds assemble at Piccadilly Greens in east Port of Spain for a re-enactment of a key event in the history of Trinidad — and of Carnival itself. Attillah Springer gives an intimate account of Kambule, when the spirits of the ancestors are invoked in a ritual of memory, story, song, and resistance

Kambule performers re-enact the beginning of the 1881 Canboulay Riots. Photo by Maria Nunes

Every Trinidad Roach March ever — and our top 10

Of the eighty-plus songs that have won the official Road March title at Trinidad Carnival, some are little remembered, some have become “back-in-times” favourites, and a few are considered landmarks — whether for their musical qualities or for trends they ushered in. Here are all the recorded Trinidad Carnival Road March winners from 1930 up to 2019 — and our picks for an all-time Road March top ten